These types of types are classified as twin-mission (meats and you may egg) types, even when differences in mature human body size occur (Table 1)

These types of types are classified as twin-mission (meats and you may egg) types, even when differences in mature human body size occur (Table 1)

The purpose of so it efforts are to learn the outcome out-of reproduce and ages to the eggs development and egg additional and inner quality inside the five Italian dual-mission types , in the beginning and lots of weeks after than simply first weeks putting activity that took place, correspondingly, after june/start of trip plus in cold temperatures, below variable environment requirements.

dos.step 1. Pets and you can Rearing Criteria

Four Italian chicken types, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and you may Robusta Lionata (RL), had been noticed to the study. The body weight out of mature female are step 1.twenty-five kg from inside the PP, dos.30 kg during the Emergency room and you will step three.05 kilogram from inside the RM and you can RL. The resource ‘s the Veneto area (Italy): PP is actually a vintage regional reproduce; the supply try old to the XIX century, however, no right data into their genetic origin can be found. One other types are formulated inside Veneto inside 1950s: the newest Emergency room breed is inspired by Sussex (shaded eggshell reproduce) and you will Rhode Isle (brownish eggshell breed) types, while into the RM and you may RL types, Brownish Orpington and you can Light America, several brownish eggshell types were utilized . Along with the adult fat, this type of breeds disagree within their plumage colour: it’s fantastic when you look at the PP, Emergency room reveals erminate plumage, RM plumage is actually mostly light which have black extremities in lot of regions of one’s body, black colored feathers out of primaries and end and RL suggests an excellent tawny plumage having black feathers out of primaries and you may end. All breeds (Figure S1) let you know single comb and place tinted eggshell eggs (Profile S2).

dos. Material and techniques

Birds regarding for each and every reproduce hatched at the same time (last half out of elizabeth farm of one’s Hub having Poultry Biodiversity Preservation regarding the Veneto part (it consistently offers up the new rearing ones types too as for the eggs production to have incubation and you may brooding), into the North Italy (45°02?53? N), off hatching with the pubertal decades and you may throughout the installing several months, and therefore already been about avoid out of june towards start of fall (Figure step one), with respect to the breed. Feeding, rearing standards (photoperiod, temperature) and you will prophylaxis steps was basically a comparable with the five breeds, ever since off hatching into the avoid of one’s examined several months, that was in the , during the 53 days old. The fresh new recently hatched chicks was in fact remaining inside inside earliest cuatro days out-of existence, during the a green temperatures coming down from 32 so you’re able to 24 °C, less than infra-yellow light lights, to the litter. From the step 1.5 months of age, the wild birds got totally free access to outside room, of spring season in order to autumn and you can winter months. Each breed (60 hens) had free accessibility backyard (5 yards 2 /bird) room (armed with linear drinkers), where the hens existed from day to night, and also to indoor (4 hens/m dos ) room (timber shavings and straw litter, which have perches and you can circular feeders), mainly used to have installing eggs (cumulative nests) and also at nights; the bedroom (interior and you can outside) accessible to for every single breed is actually divided because of the netting.

At the beginning of installing (around twenty-two days old towards the breed which have before onset of putting), in the September–Oct, with regards to the reproduce, brand new photoperiod was absolute and you may decreasing, according to the year and also the geographical standing of demo station inside the Northern Italy (typically, 12L:12D), and also for the 2nd period (out of 38 days of age, away from December to help you 53 days old), fake light is gradually enhanced (in indoor place, incandescent bulb, about sixty lux) to obtain a beneficial photoperiod regarding 14L:10D. The newest photoperiod is actually managed by the a timer, and it also is attained by turning on the newest light an hour before dawn and you will turning off it one hour immediately following sunset. The fresh external ecological heat is 10 ± step 3.4 °C and 11 ± step 3.0 °C, respectively, toward very first (right away from Oct to your avoid Kambodjanska kvinnor som sГ¶ker mГ¤n out-of November) plus the next (right away of January to your avoid out of March) putting periods, in the event that studies with the give efficiency and you can eggs top quality had been gathered. This new pets were given post libitum commercial nourishes according to the psychological phase (three varied commercial feeds in the increasing several months). Into the earliest installing stage (26–33 weeks of age, significantly less than decreasing natural photoperiod), in the event the breeds been installing, the wild birds were given a commercial pelleted provide (PG = 16%, Me = 11.8 MJ/kilogram, California = 1.1%, P = 0.6%) and you will maize (PG = 9.1%, Me personally = MJ/kg), in the a ratio of just one:step one. It is well worth recalling you to definitely, at this ages, just the twin-mission and you may shaded eggshell breeds displayed an adjustable start of laying and you can eggs creation price, while the latest hens belonging to the most other varieties of the newest Conservation Heart to possess Biodiversity and hatched at the same time of learned types, such as the white eggshell types, did not begin installing (Padovana reproduce) or they presented an extremely light laying pastime (Polverara reproduce), never attaining the threshold away from 10% hen–go out eggs production. The reason behind the choice of the fresh Preservation Heart, never to have fun with a feed getting installing hens during the this era, try on account of maybe not pushing the fresh new pullets in order to egg development through the a period which have decreasing temperature and you may photoperiod. The brand new birds expanded external, around favourable conditions to possess skeletal health, walking around soil and you will less than solar power light. On outdoor space for every breed, the existence of lawn available to brand new birds was high during this new expanding months than from the start of laying, and this occurred following the summer months, when the rain is scarce and you can didn’t support a great grass regrowth. Off 38 so you can 53 weeks old, and you can less than broadening photoperiod, the hens were fed a commercial pelleted offer to own installing (PG = 16%, Me personally = eleven.5 MJ/kilogram, Ca = cuatro.2%, P = 0.6%). All the nourishes consisted mainly from maize and you may soybean.

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